嫦娥工程 深空探测新起点

伊人久久视频 · 2019-09-25 09:59
嫦娥工程 深空探测新起点

  嫦娥工程
  深空探測新起點(新中國的“第一”·70年)

  探月工程作為國傢重大科技專項的標志性工程,是一個國傢綜合國力和科學技術水平的重要體現。

  我國計劃在明年實施嫦娥五號工程,實現月面采樣返回,為探月工程“繞、落、回”三步走發展戰略畫上圓滿的句號。

  歷史背景   

  1994年美國發射“克萊門汀1號”,發佈月球南極有水冰的信息,掀起瞭第二輪探月高潮。我國嫦娥工程就是在第二輪探月高潮中提上瞭議程。

  盡管我國在美蘇探月之後繼續探月,盡管人類航天器100多次到訪月球,甚至有12名航天員的足跡留在月球,但應該看到,人類對月球的認識還十分有限。月球的起源和演化過程、月球是否蘊藏大量水冰等資源、月球內部構造等科學問題依然是未解之謎。我國實施探月,能夠為人類探索宇宙奧秘、為世界科學進步貢獻中國力量、中國智慧。

  親歷者說        

  欒恩傑:我國探月工程首任總指揮、國傢航天局原局長、中國工程院院士,參與組織、主持我國首次月球探測工程,確立探月工程“繞、落、回”的技術發展路線,開辟瞭深空探測新領域

  月球探測是我國深空探測活動的起點。1998年,我出任國傢航天局局長,在黨中央、國務院的支持下,帶領團隊啟動瞭探月工程的規劃論證,於2000年組織完成瞭我國首部航天白皮書,把探月夢想首次落實進瞭文件。

  當時有人質疑,中國人為何要費盡周折到月球去?這其中的意義太重大瞭。探月工程既能彰顯我國的強盛國力,證明中國人有能力發展空間科學、抵達更遠太空,也能顯示我國的航天科技能力,書寫中國人對深空探測的自主認識。況且,沒有科學手段就無法開展科學研究。航天工程能夠帶動一系列技術進步,推進相關科學發展,真正惠及百姓民生。

  2004年1月,我國探月工程被批復並正式啟動。當天是猴年大年初二,我太興奮瞭,寫瞭一首詩,“地球耕耘六萬載,嫦娥思鄉五千年。殘壁遺訓催思奮,虛度花甲無滋味。”欣喜之餘又倍感壓力,我們必須搞好探月工程,才能不辜負祖國人民的信任和期望。但中國從來沒搞過深空探測,什麼都是新的,想做到萬無一失,如何是好?

  作為總指揮,我心裡繃住瞭一根弦,就是“充分利用成熟技術,踏踏實實做方案,精雕細琢地完成技術指標,不要搞花裡胡哨的東西。”當時,關於嫦娥一號選擇哪個運載火箭,爭論不一。很多人傾向用長三乙火箭,運載能力更大。但我堅持采用更成熟的長三甲火箭;討論衛星平臺時,我也堅持用東方紅三號的成熟平臺,原因無他,就是用成熟技術打底,我的心裡就有底!

  嫦娥一號遇到的最大困難,是試驗中發現衛星天線增益不夠,影響數據獲取。為解決這個問題,要麼改良衛星天線,要麼增大與之對應的、地面測控的設備口徑,提高接收能力。經過長時間攻關,單靠衛星天線無法解決難題。經過多方權衡,奮力攻關,探月工程充分運用成熟的USB測控技術,並首次與VLBI射電天文技術相結合,同時將地面天線擴大為18米口徑,這樣就通過嫦娥一號任務的實施,使我國初步具備瞭深空探測的基本能力。

  每一項大工程都必有一定時間的限制,有明確的目標要求和經費約束,同時還要突破多項關鍵技術。人財物得安排好,才能保證整個探月任務有條不紊地進行。

  回想往事,我常常感動於探月人的付出。參與工程任務的所有人員都為瞭確保成功這個共同的目標而奮鬥,嚴守紀律、上下一心,隊伍中流傳著“出瞭問題不推,手頭工作不拖,反復復查不煩,技術指標不降”的工作口號。

  嫦娥一號立項是在2004年,發射是2007年,雖然隻有短短4年,但整個項目嚴格按照航天系統工程思路推進,我們把第一年定為“開局年”,第二年是“攻關年”,第三年是“決戰年”,第四年是“決勝年”,每一年都是夜以繼日、團結協作,沒有這些航天人的付出,就沒有今天的成績。

  從嫦娥一號到嫦娥四號,我們經歷的溝溝坎坎太多瞭,但是都被我們克服瞭,實現很多工程上和技術上的創新。尤其是嫦娥四號,作為嫦娥三號的備份星,實現人類探測器首次月球背面軟著陸和首次月背與地球的中繼通信,開啟瞭月球探測的新篇章。看到嫦娥四號落月的那一刻,真的太激動瞭。

  探月工程在完成“繞”與“落”以後,第三步目標是采樣返回。目前我們還沒有完成這個任務,這也是我最牽掛的。相信隨著技術進步,嫦娥五號也一定能順利完成任務。當“繞、落、回”任務全部結束後,我認為,中國的月球探測要進入一個常態化的發展階段。同時要不斷挖掘更好的深空探測科學目標,通過對科學目標長期的、連續的研究,中國人一定會拿出高水平的成果。我衷心地希望中國深空探測之路越走越遠,越走越好,越走越強!我們探索浩瀚宇宙,建設航天強國的夢想一定會早日實現。

  知識鏈接        

  相關部門積極規劃瞭完成“繞、落、回”三步走之後到2030年前的我國無人月球探測活動,目前稱為“探月工程四期”。

  嫦娥四號是探月工程四期的首次任務,還包括嫦娥六號、嫦娥七號、嫦娥八號。通過這4次任務,在月球南極構建無人月球科研站基本型,為未來月球科研站的建設進行技術儲備和關鍵技術攻關。

  探月工程四期的實施方案正處於立項階段。

  參觀貼士        

  公眾可以通過中國探月與深空探測網——http://www.clep.org.cn/,或者關註“中國探月工程”的微信公眾號,獲取最新的探月工程成果、探月科普知識等。

馮 華 劉詩瑤

馮 華 劉詩瑤

Deep space of project of goddess in the moon explores new start (of new China " the first " · 70 years)

Visit month project regards a country as the mark sex project with great special science and technology, be comprehensive national power of a state and level of science and technology is important reflect.

Our country plan carries out goddess in the moon in next year 5 projects, sampling of implementation moon face is returned, project of the month that it is explore " circle, fall, time " 3 paces take the satisfactory full point on development strategy picture.

Historical setting  

The United States blasted off 1994 " Kelaimenting 1 " , release moon antarctic to have Shui Bing's news, lifted visit month climax the 2nd round. Project of our country goddess in the moon is in the 2nd round namely in visit month climax promoted agenda.

Although our country is in the beauty month of succeed add visit, although human spacecraft 100 arrive for many times visit a moon, the track that has 12 spacefarers even stays in the moon, but should see, the mankind is very finite still to the understanding of the moon. The origin of the moon and evolution process, moon whether hold in store is much the scientific question such as construction of interior of the resource such as Shui Bing, moon still is the mystery that did not solve. Our country carries out visit month, can probe cosmic mystery for the mankind, for world science progress contributes wisdom of Chinese force, China.

The person that kiss all previous says   of   of   of      

Luan Enjie: Academician of former director of bureau of spaceflight of commander in chief of the first to be appointed to an office of project of month of our country visit, country, Chinese Academy of Engineering, participate in an organization, manage our country first the moon explores a project, project of establish visit month " circle, fall, time " the technology expands a line, open up deep space explores new field

The moon explores the start that is exploration activity of our country deep space. 1998, I take up the post of director of national spaceflight bureau, below the support of the Party Central Committee, the State Council, guided a group to start the program argumentation of visit month project, 2000 the organization completed white book of spaceflight of ministry of our country head, fulfil visit month earnest wish into the file first.

There is hostage doubt at that time, why should the Chinese expend setbacks to go to the moon? This among them sense is too great. Visit month project can reveal the powerful and prosperous national power of our country already, proof Chinese is capable to develop dimensional science, arrive at farther aerospace, also can demonstrate the ability of spaceflight science and technology of our country, write the own understanding that the Chinese explores to deep space. Besides, without science the method cannot begin scientific research. Spaceflight project can drive a series of technologies to progress, advance relevant and scientific progress, real benefit reachs common people the people's livelihood.

In January 2004, project of month of our country visit is started formally by give an official. That day is monkey year at the beginning of good year 2, I am too excited, wrote a poem, "The earth is cultivated 60 thousand carry, goddess in the moon considers country 5000. Incomplete wall teachings of the deceased is urged think of act vigorously, waste a cycle of sixty years not to have flavor. " glad times feeling pressure, we must do well visit month project, ability not the accredit of disappoint motherland people and expectation. But China had never done deep space to explore, whats are new, want to accomplish no risk at all, how be good?

As commander in chief, a bowstring stretched tight in my heart, namely " make full use of mature technology, sureness makes plan, ground of fine carve of carve of essence of life achieves technical target, do not do the thing of gaudy. " at that time, about goddess in the moon one chooses which carrier rocket, the controversy is differ. Tendency of a lot of people is used grow 3 second rocket, locomotive ability is greater. But I insist to use more mature length 3 armour rocket; When discussion satellite platform, I also insist to use east red 3 mature platform, the reason does not have him, use mature technology render namely, in my heart with respect to know how things stand and feel confident of handling them!

The greatest difficulty that goddess in the moon encounters one number, it is the discovery in the experiment satellitic antenna gain is insufficient, influence data is gotten. To solve this problem, or is improved satellitic antenna, or increases to it corresponding, the ground measures the equipment line of action that dominate, rise receive ability. The course tackles key problem for long, sheet relies on satellitic antenna inextricability difficult problem. Through much square balance, do all one can tackles key problem, the USB that visit month project uses maturity adequately is measured accuse a technology, be united in wedlock with photograph of technology of VLBI radio astronomy first, at the same time ground antenna expand into 18 meters of caliber, pass goddess in the moon so of a task carry out, make our country preliminary the primary capacity that had deep space to explore.

Each big project has the restriction of proper time surely, have specific target requirement and funds tie, break through multinomial and crucial technology even at the same time. Person property must have been arranged, ability assures ground of in an orderly way of task of whole visit month to undertake.

After-thought past, I often am touched at visit month person pay. All staff that share project job succeed to ensure this common cause and struggle, strictly observe of one mind of discipline, fluctuation, team midstream is being passed " gave a problem to be not pushed, at hand job does not procrastinate, check repeatedly not irritated, technical index does not fall " working catchword.

Goddess in the moon a project approving is 2004, blasting off was 2007, although have only 4 years short, but whole project is advanced strictly according to train of thought of spaceflight system project, we are the first year surely " bureau year " , it is the 2nd year " tackle key problem year " , it is the 3rd year " decisive battle year " , it is the 4th year " decide the issue of the battle year " , it is each years day and night, unitive cooperation, do not have these spaceflight people pay, do not have today's achievement.

Cong Change arrives one number goddess in the moon 4, the bank of channel channel bank that we experience is too much, but was overcome by us, realize the innovation that goes up with the technology on a lot of projects. Especially goddess in the moon 4, regard goddess in the moon as 3 backup star, implementation mankind detector first soft landing of moon the reverse side and first the relay of lunar back and earth corresponds, open the new page that the moon explores. See goddess in the moon falls 4 numbers of the month that momently, too excited really.

Visit month project is being finished " circle " with " fall " later, target of the 3rd pace is sampling is returned. At present we had not finished this job, this also is me most care. Believe to progress as the technology, goddess in the moon also can finish the job smoothly 5 numbers certainly. When " circle, fall, time " after the task ends entirely, I think, chinese moon explores the development phase that should enter a normalization. Want to dig better deep space to explore scientific target ceaselessly at the same time, pass long-term to scientific target, successive research, the Chinese can take out Gao Shuiping's gain certainly. The route that I hope Chinese deep space is explored heartily goes further more, go better more, go stronger more! We explore vast universe, the dream that builds spaceflight power can come true at an early date certainly.

Knowledge links   of   of   of      

Relevant section planned actively to finish " circle, fall, time " the our country before 2030 reachs after 3 paces go unmanned moon probes an activity, call at present " visit month project 4 period " .

Goddess in the moon is visit month project 4 4 period first the task, still include goddess in the moon 6 date, goddess in the moon 7 date, goddess in the moon 8. Carry the mission 4 times this, in moon antarctic compose builds unmanned moon scientific research the station is main model, the construction that stands for prospective moon scientific research undertakes technical reserve and crucial technology tackle key problem.

Visit month project 4 period executive plan is in project approving phase.

Look around stick   of   of   of   of person    

The public can explore a net through Chinese visit month and deep space -- Http: / / Www.clep.org.cn/ , perhaps pay close attention to " project of Chinese visit month " date of small letter public, get knowledge of popular science of month of achievement of newest visit month engineering, visit to wait.

Feng Hua Liushi preciouses jade

Shi Yao of Feng Hua Liu

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