新中国七十年人权事业发展成就辉煌

伊人久久在线 · 2019-09-25 09:54
新中国七十年人权事业发展成就辉煌

  新中國七十年人權事業發展成就輝煌(國際論壇)

  李雲龍

  新中國開創瞭中國人權事業發展的新紀元,尤其是改革開放和黨的十八大以來,中國人權事業快速前行,實現瞭跨越式發展,取得瞭歷史性成就。

  國傢的獨立和主權得到有效保障。新中國成立後,中國政府廢除瞭西方列強強加給中國的不平等條約,肅清帝國主義國傢在華特權和勢力,維護瞭國傢主權,捍衛瞭國傢利益和民族尊嚴。

  人民生活水平快速提高,實現瞭從貧困到溫飽、再到小康的歷史性飛躍。1949年中國居民人均可支配收入為49.7元,2018年增加到28228元,名義增長566.6倍,扣除物價因素實際增長59.2倍。按照2010年農村貧困標準,1978年末中國農村貧困人口7.7億人,2018年末減少到1660萬人。

  教育事業長足發展。經過70年的努力,中國教育面貌發生根本改變。9年義務教育全面普及,高中階段教育快速普及,高等教育大眾化水平進一步提高。2018年九年義務教育鞏固率達94.2%,高中階段毛入學率為88.8%,高等教育毛入學率達48.1%。中國教育規模居世界首位。

  醫療衛生條件明顯改善。70年來,中國建成瞭覆蓋城鄉的醫療衛生服務體系,城鄉居民健康水平顯著提高,人民的健康權得到有效保障。2018年中國人均預期壽命達到77歲,嬰兒死亡率下降到6.1‰,居民主要健康指標優於世界中高收入國傢平均水平。

  社會保障體系全面建立。70年來,中國不斷探索,建成瞭世界上規模最大、覆蓋人口最多的社會保障體系。到2018年底,全國參加基本養老保險人數達9.42億人,參加基本醫療保險人數達13.44億人。

  人民享有廣泛的政治權利和人身自由權利。新中國建立瞭人民代表大會制度,實現瞭人民當傢作主。中國憲法規定,國傢的一切權力屬於人民,人民行使權力的機關是全國人民代表大會和地方各級人民代表大會。憲法明確規定,公民有言論、出版、集會、結社、遊行、示威和宗教信仰的自由;公民的人身自由、人格尊嚴和住宅不受侵犯;公民的通信自由和通信秘密受法律保護。

  基層民主全面實現。基層民主是保障公民直接行使各項民主權利的重要途徑。以城鄉村(居)民自治為核心,民主選舉、民主協商、民主決策、民主管理、民主監督為主要內容的基層群眾自治制度基本建立。在農村地區,村委會普遍實行直接選舉,村民平均參選率超過90%,98%的村制定瞭村規民約和村民自治章程;在城市地區,全國已有居民委員會10.6萬個。城鄉居民通過直接選舉村民委員會和居委會成員、民主討論決定本村和本社區重大事務等,充分行使民主選舉、民主決策、民主管理和民主監督的權利。

  法治國傢建設取得重大進展。新中國成立以來,中國從零開始,構築中國特色社會主義法律體系。改革開放以來,特別是十八大以來,中國大力推進法治國傢建設和人權的法治保障。中國嚴格落實罪刑法定、疑罪從無、非法證據排除等法律原則,確保審判權和檢察權獨立公正行使,推進司法公開,保障律師執業權利,建立瞭法律援助制度和司法救助制度。

  新中國人權事業之所以取得如此巨大的成就,很重要的一點是因為有正確的人權理念指引。70年來,中國人權事業發展始終堅持黨的領導,堅持社會主義方向。新中國規定瞭當代中國人權發展的社會主義性質。社會主義成為中國人權發展的主色調。社會主義追求的自由平等理想同人權高度契合。堅持以人民為中心是中國人權發展的核心理念。人民是歷史的創造者,也是人權發展的主體。中國尊重人民主體地位,始終把人民作為人權發展的主要參與者和促進者,吸引人民群眾自覺投身人權保障事業。人權保障同每個人的生活息息相關,是人民群眾重要的利益。黨和政府發展人權事業,加強人權保障,目的就是維護人民群眾的利益。滿足人民對美好生活的向往是中國人權事業發展的最高目標。黨的十九大提出,我國社會主要矛盾已經轉化為人民日益增長的美好生活需要和不平衡不充分的發展之間的矛盾。中國人權發展的目標就是要在解決這個矛盾的基礎上不斷創造美好生活,逐步實現全體人民共同富裕,促進人的全面發展。

  70年來,中國黨和政府領導人民,砥礪奮鬥,成功走出瞭一條符合本國國情的人權發展道路。這條道路發源於中國歷史傳統,植根於中國現實國情,借鑒瞭各國有益經驗,反映瞭中國特色社會主義的本質要求。第一,堅持把人權的普遍性原則同中國實際相結合。中國政府根據中國仍處於並將長期處於社會主義初級階段這個基本國情,堅持人權普遍性原則,主動適應人民的發展要求,始終致力於有計劃、有步驟、分階段地促進人權事業發展進步。第二,堅持把生存權和發展權作為首要的基本人權。中國始終把發展作為第一要務,不斷解放和發展生產力,致力於消除貧困,實現瞭人民生活從貧困到溫飽再到小康的歷史性跨越,推動人權保障事業跨上新臺階。第三,堅持全面協調推進各項權利。中國堅持各項人權相互依賴、不可分割,對各項人權的發展進行統籌協調、均衡推進,切實推動經濟、社會、文化權利和公民權利、政治權利的協同發展,促進個人人權和集體人權的全面進步。第四,全方位提升人權法治化保障水平。中國全面推進依法治國,堅持法治國傢、法治政府、法治社會一體建設,將尊重和保障人權置於社會主義法治國傢建設更加突出的位置,將人權保障貫穿於科學立法、嚴格執法、公正司法和全民守法等各個環節。第五,構建人類命運共同體,推動建立公正合理的國際人權治理體系。中國堅定捍衛以《聯合國憲章》為核心的國際法基本原則和國際關系基本準則,認真履行已參加的國際人權條約規定的義務,主張在平等和相互尊重基礎上開展國際人權交流與合作,加大重視發展中國傢關註的經社文權利和發展權等人權,促進各類人權全面發展。

  (作者為中共中央黨校(國傢行政學院)教授)

Success of progress of career of 70 years of human rights of new China is brilliant (international forum)

Li Yunlong

What new China initiated career of Chinese human rights to develop is epochal, especially of reforming and opening and party 18 big since, the Chinese goes before power facilities is fast, came true to span type develops, obtained historic accomplishment.

National independence and dominion get be ensuringed effectively. After new China holds water, chinese government abolished western big powers forces Chinese unequal treaty, country of clean up imperialism is in China prerogative and force, upheld state sovereignty, defend national interest and ethical dignity.

People living standard rises quickly, came true to arrive from poverty dress warmly and ear one's fill, arrive again comparatively well-off historic flight. Chinese dweller average per capita can control income to be 49.7 yuan 1949, increased 28228 yuan 2018, name grows 566.6 times, deduct prices factor to grow 59.2 actually times. According to the country is poor 2010 standard, end China country is poor 1978 population 770 million person, end reduced 16.6 million person 2018.

Educational enterprise is great develop. Through effort of 70 years, china teachs appearance happening to be changed at all. 9 years compulsory education gains ground in the round, education of high school level gains ground quickly, level of higher education in a popular style rises further. 9 years compulsory education consolidated 2018 rate amount to 94.2% , rate of enter a school of wool of high school phase is 88.8% , rate of enter a school of higher education wool is amounted to 48.1% . Dimensions of state religion Yo occupies world first place in.

Medical treatment defends unripe condition to be improved apparently. Come 70 years, china built enclothe urban and rural medical treatment sanitation to serve a system, level of health of urban and rural dweller rises significantly, healthy advantageous position of people gets be ensuringed effectively. Life expectancy of Chinese average per capita achieved 77 years old 2018, infantile mortality drops 6.1 ‰ , state of the good-paying in residing democracy to want world of healthy index excel is average level.

Social security system is built in the round. Come 70 years, china is explored ceaselessly, built the dimensions on the world the biggest, cover the social security system with most population. To the end of 2018, the whole nation attends number of primary endowment insurance to amount to 942 million person, attend number of insurance of primary medical treatment to amount to 1.344 billion person.

People enjoys extensive political right and person freedom right. New China built people's congress system, came true people is master in his own house. Chinese constitution sets, all influence of the country belong to people, the mechanism of people exercise influence is National People's Congress and place various people's congress. Constitution makes clear a regulation, the citizen has speech, publish, the freedom of assembly, tong, processional, demonstrate and religious belief; Dignity of person freedom of the citizen, character and residence do not suffer encroach; Communication freedom of the citizen and communication secret get legal protection.

Basic level democracy comes true in the round. Basic level democracy is safeguard citizen direct exercise counterpoises each democratically the important way of benefit. With urban and rural village (house) civilian autonomy is core, democratic election, democracy talks things over, democratic and decision-making, democracy management, democracy supervises the system of autonomy of basic level masses that is main content to be built basically. In a rural area, village appoint can execute direct election generally, the villager is participated on average rate more than 90% , the village of 98% made a village compasses civilian is made an appointment with and villager autonomy constitution; Be in urban district, the whole nation already had dweller committee 106 thousand. Urban and rural dweller passes committee of direct election villager and house appoint conference member, democracy discussion decides this village is mixed this community weighs important matter Wu to wait, democratic and election of sufficient exercise democracy, decision-making, democracy management and the right that control democratically.

Law state construction obtains significant progress. Since new China holds water, china from 0 begin, build jurisprudence of Chinese characteristic socialism. Since reforming and opening, especially 18 big since, china advances the law of law state construction and human rights to ensure energetically. China fulfils a blame strictly punishment blame of legal, doubt from without, illegal evidence eliminates to wait for legal principle, ensure jurisdiction and independence of procuratorial work authority are judicial exercise, advance judicatory to make public, guarantee a lawyer hold property right, built law to help system and judicatory deliverance system.

Career of new China human rights gains so huge success, very important because have correct human rights concept, is how-to. Come 70 years, progress of career of Chinese human rights holds to the leader of the party from beginning to end, hold to socialistic direction. New China set the socialistic property that contemporary China human rights develops. Socialism becomes the mass-tone that Chinese human rights develops to move. Height of ideal colleague authority agrees with the free equality that socialism goes after. Insisting to be a center with people is the core concept that Chinese human rights develops. People is historical author, also be the principal part that human rights expands. China respects place of people main body, regard the main participator that human rights develops and promoter as people from beginning to end, attract people consciousness to devote into human rights to ensure a career. Human rights ensures the life be closely bound up that is the same as everybody, it is the increase with significant people. Party and government admit human rights enterprise, strengthen human rights safeguard, the purpose maintains the interest of people namely. What contented people lives to happiness is yearning the top end that is progress of career of Chinese human rights. Of the party 19 put forward greatly, the good life that our country society basically contradicts to had changed humanness civilian to grow increasingly needs and lopsided the contradiction between scant progress. Ceaseless creation happiness lives on the base that the target that Chinese human rights develops wants to resolving this contradiction namely, people of progressively implementation collectivity is collective and rich, the full-scale development of stimulative person.

Come 70 years, chinese party and government lead people, encourage struggles, walked out of a human rights that accords with native national condition successfully to develop way. This road hair results from Chinese history is traditional, root at Chinese actual national condition, drew lessons from each state-owned beneficial experience, reflected the substaintial demand of Chinese characteristic socialism. The first, the catholicity principle that holds to a human rights is united in wedlock actually with China. Chinese government still is in according to China and will be in socialism for a long time primary level this fundamental national condition, hold to principle of human rights catholicity, get used to development demand of people actively, devote oneself to in a planned way from beginning to end, measure, grading ground promotes human rights career to develop progress. The 2nd, hold to live to counterpoise and develop authority to serve as principal privilege. China regards the first important or urgent business as development from beginning to end, be liberated ceaselessly and develop productivity, devote oneself to to eliminate poverty, realized people life to arrive again to dress warmly and ear one's fill from poverty comparatively well-off historic span, drive human rights to ensure a career to cross on new chance to extricateoneself from an awkward position. The 3rd, insist to be coordinated in the round drive each right. China holds to each human rights interdependent, impartible cut, undertake planning as a whole to the development of each human rights harmonious, balanced advance, cogent those who drive right of right of economy, society, culture and attainder, politics develop in coordination, promote the comprehensive progress of a person rights of man and collective human rights. The 4th, all-around law of promotion human rights changes safeguard standard. China is advanced in the round according to law state, hold to an organic whole of society of government of law state, law, law to build, esteem and socialism of park of safeguard human rights law state builds more prominent position, ensure human rights perforative execute the law legislatively, strictly at science, just judicatory and the whole people are abide by the law wait for each link. The 5th, compose builds human destiny community, drive build just and reasonable international rights of man to administer a system. Chinese sturdy defend with " United Nations Charter " for the law of nations of core basic principle and international concern basic standard, fulfil the obligation that the pact of international human rights that already entered sets seriously, the view begins communication of international human rights and collaboration on equality and mutual respect foundation, increase the human rights such as the right of classics company language that values developing country attention and development authority, promote of all kinds human rights to develop in the round.

(The author is Party school of Central Committee of Communist Party of China (national administration institute) teach)

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