中国堪称“世界桥梁博物馆” 为人民群众带来便

伊人久久高清 · 2019-09-25 09:40
中国堪称“世界桥梁博物馆” 为人民群众带来便利

  【中國新地標】

  在新中國成立70周年之際,由中國鐵建大橋局施工建設的湖北石首長江大橋和浩吉鐵路三門峽黃河公鐵兩用大橋即將建成通車,屆時,從武漢開車到石首耗時從近5個小時縮短至2個半小時左右,陜西、山西的豐富能源也有瞭重要的“南下”要道;此外,即將通車的主跨長達1700米的武漢楊泗港長江大橋被稱作是世界上通行能力最大、使用功能最完備的大跨懸索橋,作為第七屆世界軍人運動會保障線路之一,楊泗港長江大橋建成通車後,將為軍運會的順利進行提供重要交通保障。

  在祖國的發展過程中,連接深山峽谷、跨越江河湖海的大橋,曾經是許多中國人的夢想。從需要從蘇聯獲得技術援助、進口鋼材的武漢長江大橋,到獨立自主、自力更生的南京長江大橋,再到如今港珠澳大橋、蘇通大橋、泰州大橋等不斷湧現的“橋梁奇跡”,回顧中國橋梁發展史,每一座大橋的設計與施工建造,背後都凝聚著建設者的智慧和勇氣。

  “一橋飛架南北,天塹變通途。”70年來,從跨河、跨江,到跨越海洋,我國建造的大橋無論是地質條件,還是結構形式都越來越復雜。橋,作為技術密集型工程,也從一個側面見證著祖國的進步、發展和越發強大的實力。

2018年10月24日,全長55公裡的港珠澳大橋正式通車。圖為2018年6月拍攝的大橋夜景。中新社記者 麥尚旻 攝

  中國堪稱“世界橋梁博物館”

  2018年年底,經過6年籌備、9年建設,全長55公裡的港珠澳大橋建成通車。這一超級工程集橋梁、隧道和人工島於一體,其建設難度之大,被譽為橋梁界的“珠穆朗瑪峰”。

  “對於這座目前世界上綜合難度最大的跨海大橋而言,每項榮譽的背後,都是一組組沉甸甸數據的支撐。”中國交建總工程師、港珠澳大橋島隧項目總經理、總工程師林鳴表示,在港珠澳大橋項目中,中國橋梁建設者共研發瞭10多項世界領先的專用設備和系統,獲得瞭500多項專利,攻克瞭10餘項外海沉管安裝世界級的工程難題。

  9月9日,武漢第11座長江大橋、長江上橋面最寬的大橋——青山長江大橋主體工程完工。數據顯示,截至目前,長江上在建已建各式現代化橋梁超過200座。在工程建設領域,大型橋梁被譽為“皇冠上的明珠”。相對於摩天大樓、大型機場等建築,架在峽谷、江河、大海上的大型橋梁,不僅要承受自身重量,還得經得起大量汽車,甚至高速列車通過帶來的巨大沖擊。

  1957年10月15日正式通車的武漢長江大橋被譽為“萬裡長江第一橋”,是新中國成立後在長江上修建的第一座復線鐵路、公路兩用橋。60多年來,歷經瞭風雨滄桑的武漢長江大橋,承受瞭77次意外碰撞事故,但橋梁2.4萬多噸的鋼梁無彎曲變形,8個橋墩表面無一裂紋,100多萬顆鉚釘無一松動,全橋無變位下沉。

  中鐵大橋勘測設計院副總工程師徐恭義表示,能經得起時間檢驗的工程才是好工程,武漢長江大橋60年還堅固如初,經專傢鑒定,壽命可達百年以上。此外,橋位、橋跨、橋式、建築美學、功能佈局都非常合理完美,堪稱至尊經典。

  數據顯示,截至2018年年底,我國公路橋梁總數已經達到85.15萬座,鐵路橋梁也已超過6萬座,遠遠超過世界其他國傢。與此同時,我國的高鐵橋梁也已達到3萬餘座,長度達到1.6萬餘公裡,高鐵橋梁的累積長度超過高鐵線路總長的50%。

  “如今,當代中國已經成為世界鐵路橋梁運營裡程最長、在建規模最大的國度。制運架一體化的預制箱梁建造技術、大跨度斜拉橋和懸索橋成套建造技術、深海橋梁成套建造技術等位居世界前列。此外,世界高度前100名的大橋中,中國包攬瞭其中的80餘座,堪稱‘世界橋梁博物館’。”中國工程院副院長、中國科協副主席何華武院士說。

資料圖:長248米、重1.8萬噸的武漢楊泗港快速通道青菱段斜拉橋在8號墩帶動下,平穩地逆時針轉體77度後,與此前一天旋轉瞭105度、同等長度和重量的9號墩成功“牽手”。圖為斜拉橋進行轉體作業。 中新社記者 鄭子顏 攝

  創造一項又一項世界紀錄

  在世界橋梁建設行業,流傳著這樣一句話,“世界橋梁建設,20世紀70年代以前看歐美,90年代看日本,21世紀則要看中國。”

  世界第一長橋——京滬高鐵上全長165公裡的丹昆特大橋;世界最長最高全透明玻璃橋——張傢界玻璃大橋;世界上最大跨度的公鐵兩用斜拉橋——全長11072米的滬通長江大橋;世界第一跨海長橋——長達55公裡的港珠澳大橋……

  “如今,中國橋梁震撼世界,首先是交通基礎設施建設的需要,其次是強大的經濟實力支撐,但關鍵在於科研技術系統的長期積累與勃發。”交通運輸部政策研究室副主任孫文劍表示,中國橋梁人在科技、工藝、裝備、材料和美學上緊跟國內外科學前沿和熱點,善於學習創新,在大跨度公鐵橋梁設計、研發、試驗和應用中屢創佳績。

  2014年7月1日,全長9969米、被譽為“高鐵黃河第一橋”的晉陜黃河特大橋正式通車,大橋自西向東跨越黃河,連接起山西、陜西兩省,是目前我國高速鐵路跨越黃河最長、建設規模最大的橋梁。

  “晉陜黃河特大橋全橋共175個墩臺,絕大多數為45米以上的薄壁空心高墩,樁基深入地下逾100米,並且在國內首次運用瞭鋼桁加勁組合結構。”中鐵上海局工作人員張興宇表示,正是因為高超的技術水平,該工程榮獲瞭國傢AAA級安全文明標準化誠信工地、中國建築工程魯班獎和中國土木工程詹天佑大獎。

  同時,在許多國際頂尖橋梁獎項的評選中,中國橋梁工程的身影也經常出現其中。2013年年底正式通車的馬鞍山長江大橋,曾自主研發出19項國內外專利,獲得素有橋梁界“諾貝爾獎”美譽的喬治·理查德森獎。獲得這個獎項的還有浙江嘉紹大橋、武漢天興洲長江大橋、南京大勝關長江大橋、蘇通長江公路大橋、膠州灣跨海大橋。因為技術的不斷提升,目前我國橋梁建築正在將一個個不可能化為現實。

  為人民群眾帶來更多便利

  作為交通強國的重要組成部分,我國橋梁不僅創造著一項又一項的世界紀錄,也為人民群眾的生產生活創造著更多的便利。

  2015年通車的清水河大橋,使貴州成為西部地區第一個縣縣通高速公路的省份;2016年通車的北盤江大橋,是曾經的“世界第一高橋”,橋面到谷底垂直高度565米,相當於200層樓高,它的建成通車使雲南宣威與貴州水城兩地車程從5小時縮短至1小時;2018年通車的廣西柳州市官塘大橋,使柳州市老城區至柳東新區的車程從40分鐘縮短到10分鐘……如今,這樣的故事正越來越多地上演在廣袤的華夏大地上。

  與此同時,還有更多高水平的橋梁建築正在施工建設,將於近期為人民群眾帶來更多的便利。世界最高混凝土橋塔——平塘特大橋,預計於今年底完工;中國首座公鐵兩用懸索橋——五峰山長江大橋,預計2020年8月竣工通車;世界上豎轉角度最大的橋——瀾滄江特大橋,預計將於今年底基本完工……

  “目前,中國正從橋梁建設大國向橋梁建設強國邁進,在未來5到10年,中國橋梁技術創新和橋梁建造水平還將有更新更大的突破。”中國鐵建大橋局相關負責人表示,架橋修路就是為瞭方便人們的出行和貨物的運輸,希望通過我們的努力,讓越來越多的交通參與者收獲更多的便利和滿滿的幸福感。

  (本報記者 訾謙)

[mark of Chinese new ground]

When new China holds water 70 years, the big bridge of river of Hubei stone leading cadre that builds construction of construction of big bridge bureau by Chinese iron and grand auspicious railroad fair iron of 3 gorge Yellow River is amphibious big bridge is about to build be open to traffic, at the appointed time, drive from Wuhan stone head is time-consuming shorten from nearly 5 hours reach 2 half hours or so, the substantial energy resources of Shaanxi, Shanxi also had important " south below " thoroughfare; In addition, be about to of be open to traffic advocate cross the Wuhan that is as long as 1700 meters poplar big bridge of Si harbor the Yangtse River is called to be the traffic capacity on the world the biggest, use function is the most complete cross suspension bridge greatly, ensure one of circuitry as games of soldier of the 7th world, poplar after big bridge of Si harbor the Yangtse River builds be open to traffic, provide the success that meets for army carry safeguard of principal liaison man.

In the development process of the motherland, join deep mountain valleys, span the big bridge of sea of river river lake, once was the dream of a lot of Chinese. The big bridge of Wuhan the Yangtse River that obtains rolled steel of technical help, import from Russia from need, to paddle one's own canoe, big bridge of self-made Nanjing the Yangtse River, arrive again nowadays harbor bead bay of the ceaseless emerge in large numbers such as big bridge, Su Tong big bridge, peaceful city big bridge " bridge miracle " , review Chinese bridge phylogeny, the design of each big bridge and construction are built, the wisdom that condensing builder rear is enraged with brave.

"One bridge flies a north and south, road of natural moat flexible. " come 70 years, from cross a river, cross river, to span marine, no matter the big bridge that our country builds is geological condition, or configuration is more and more complex. The bridge, regard technology intensive as the project, also witnessing the progress of the motherland, development and even more powerful actual strength from a flank.

On October 24, 2018, full-length the harbor of 55 kilometers bead bay big bridge is formal be open to traffic. The graph is the big bridge night scene that filmed in June 2018. Mai Shang photographs reporter of China News Service

Chinese can says " world bridge museum "

2018 the end of the year, prepare through 6 years, 9 years of construction, full-length the harbor of 55 kilometers bead bay big bridge builds be open to traffic. Bridge of market of this one super engineering, channel and artificial island at an organic whole, what its build difficulty is big, those who be known as bridge bound " Mount Everest " .

"Go up to bound of this eye preexistence integrated difficulty is the greatest cross Hai Daqiao and character, every honorary backside, be data of heavy of a group of groups prop up. " China is handed in build chief engineer, harbor bead bay Lin Ming of general manager of project of Sui of big bridge island, chief engineer expresses, in harbor bead bay in big bridge project, chinese bridge builder in all research and development 10 multinomial worlds' banner special device and system, won 500 multinomial patent, captured heavy canal of more than 10 open waters installs the project difficult problem of world-class.

On September 9, wuhan the big bridge of the 11st the Yangtse River, big bridge with the widest bridge floor on the Yangtse River -- project of main body of big bridge of green hill the Yangtse River is finishing. Data shows, up to now, be in on the Yangtse River build already built various modern bridge to exceed 200. In project domain, large bridge is known as " the bright phearl on imperial crown " . Wait for a building at skyscraper, large airport relatively, wear the large bridge on gorge, Jiang He, sea, should bear not only oneself weight, return withstand is in great quantities car, pass brought huge impact to high speed train very.

The big bridge of Wuhan the Yangtse River of formal on October 15, 1957 be open to traffic is known as " 10 thousand lis of the Yangtse River the first bridge " , it is the railroad of the first multiple track that after new China holds water, builds on the Yangtse River, highway amphibious bridge. 60 come for years, all previous classics the big bridge of Wuhan the Yangtse River of harships vicissitudes of life, bore 77 times accident collision accident, but many tons 24 thousand girder does not have bridge bend be out of shape, 8 pier surface does not have one crackle, many 100 rivet is not had become loose, complete bridge is not had change sink.

In Xu Gong of assistant chief engineer of designing institute of Tie Daqiao survey justice express, can the project that withstand time tests just is good project, big bridge of Wuhan the Yangtse River still is like 60 years stably first, via expert appraisal, life can amount to hundred years above. In addition, the bridge, the bridge is crossed, distribution of aesthetic of bridge-type, building, function is very equitable perfect, can says to come honour classical.

Data shows, up to 2018 the end of the year, gross of bridge of our country highway has achieved eight hundred and fifty-one thousand five hundred, railroad bridge already also exceeded 60 thousand, exceed world other country far. Meanwhile, the tall iron bridge of our country already also achieved more than 30 thousand, length achieves 16 thousand more than kilometer, 50% of tall iron bridge.

"Nowadays, contemporary China has made course of development of operation of world railroad bridge the longest, in build the country with the biggest dimensions. The prefab box bridge that makes carry wear unifinication builds technology, big span inclined pull the bridge and suspension bridge whole set to build whole set of technology, deep-sea bridge to build a technology to wait rank world front row. In addition, in before world height 100 big bridge, china undertook the whole thing more than 80 among them, can says ' world bridge museum ' . " division of assistant dean of Chinese Academy of Engineering, China assist academician of vice-chairman He Huawu says.

Data chart: The 248 meters long, Wuhan that weighs 18 thousand tons poplar Duan Xie of swift passage green water chestnut pulls Si harbor the bridge is driven in 8 mound, smoothly anticlockwise turn 77 degrees hind, rotated before today with this 105 degrees, 9 mound of coequal length and weight are successful " pull a hand " . The graph is inclined pull the bridge to undertake turn works. Reporter Zheng Ziyan of China News Service is photographed

Create an another world record

Alive bound bridge builds an industry, circulating a such words, "World bridge is built, 20 centuries look before 70 time Euramerican, 90 time see Japan, 21 centuries should take a fancy to a country. 21 centuries should take a fancy to a country..

The first long bridge of world -- on Beijing Shanghai Gao Tie full-length the Dan Kun of 165 kilometers is especially big the bridge; The world is the longest bridge of highest completely transparent glass -- big bridge of glass of Home Zhang group; The fair iron of the biggest span on the world is amphibious inclined play the bridge -- full-length 11072 meters Shanghai connects big bridge of the Yangtse River; The world the first cross Hai Changqiao -- be as long as the harbor of 55 kilometers bead bay big bridge...

"Nowadays, world of Chinese bridge shock, it is the need that traffic infrastructure builds above all, it is powerful economic actual strength is propped up next, but what the key depends on system of scientific research technology is long-term accumulate with break out. " Sun Wenjian of vice director of lab of policy of traffic Department of Transportation expresses, chinese bridge person goes up in science and technology, craft, equipment, material and aesthetic surgery of follow closely home learns forward position and heat, be good at learning innovation, achieve beautiful performance repeatedly in design of bridge of big span fair iron, research and development, experiment and application.

On July 1, 2014, full-length 9969 meters, be known as " river of tall iron oxide yellow the first bridge " Yellow River of advance short for Shaanxi Province is especially big the bridge is formal be open to traffic, big bridge spans eastwards on the west oneself the Yellow River, the Shanxi since join, Shaanxi two provinces, it is at present railroad of our country high speed spans the Yellow River the bridge with the largest scale of the longest, construction.

"Yellow River of advance short for Shaanxi Province is especially big bridge complete bridge in all 175 mound stage, the Bao Bi that great majority is 45 meters of above is hollow tall mound, underground of picket radical development evens more 100 meters, and used steel joist make a greater effort first in home set a structure. " in staff member Zhang Xingyu expresses iron Shanghai bureau, because,be lofty technical level, this project had the honor to win national AAA class to install whole culture to standardize sincere letter building site, China to build a project rash class award and Zhan Tianyou of Chinese civil engineering are big award.

In the meantime, in award of a lot of international tip bridge in choosing, the figure of Chinese bridge project often also appears among them. The end of the year is formal 2013 the big bridge of saddle hill the Yangtse River of be open to traffic, ever ground independently issue 19 domestic and international patent, obtain element to have bridge group " nobel prize " beautiful praise tall treats · to manage Cha Desen award. Win this award still have Zhejiang big bridge of Jia Shaoda bridge, the Yangtse River of Wuhan Tian Xingzhou, Nanjing is gotten the better of greatly close big bridge of the Yangtse River, Su Tong bay of administrative division of big bridge of highway of the Yangtse River, rubber crosses Hai Daqiao. Because of ceaseless promotion of the technology, at present construction of our country bridge is in each reality of impossible melt into.

Bring more advantage for people

Regard traffic as the main component of powerful nation, our country bridge is creating an another world record not only, the unripe generation that also is people is creating more advantage alive.

The clear water river of be open to traffic is old 2015 the bridge, make Guizhou is become western county of the first county knows the area the province of the freeway; The boreal Pan Jiang of be open to traffic is big 2016 the bridge, be once " the first tall bridge of world " , bridge floor arrives by cereal perpendicular height 565 meters, be equivalent to 200 buildings tall, its building be open to traffic makes Yunnan Xuan Wei and Guizhou water city Cheng of two ground car shortens from 5 hours to 1 hour; The pool of official of Guangxi Liuzhou city of be open to traffic is big 2018 the bridge, make Liuzhou city old the city zone shortens from 40 minutes to the car Cheng of Liu Dongxin area... nowadays, such story is performing the earth of an ancient name for China in length and breadth of land increasingly to go up.

Meanwhile, the bridge building that still has more Gao Shuiping is being built in construction, will bring more advantage for people at the near future. Bridge tower of world highest concrete -- smooth pond is especially big the bridge, predict nowadays the end of the year is finishing; First fair iron of Chinese is amphibious suspension bridge -- big bridge of the Yangtse River of 5 peaks hill, predict in August 2020 complete be open to traffic; Perpendicular corner spends the biggest bridge on the world -- river of billows dark blue is especially big the bridge, predict will nowadays the end of the year is basic and finishing...

"Current, china is building big country to build powerful nation stride to bridge from bridge, in future 5 arrive 10 years, innovation of Chinese bridge technology and bridge build a level to still will have update bigger breakthrough. " Chinese iron builds big bridge bureau relevant controller expresses, bridge long road is for the go outing of convenient people of travel and goods carry, the hope passes our effort, let more and more traffic participator harvest more advantage and full happy feeling.

(Zi Qian of our newspaper reporter)

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